Social Sciences Citation Index
Social Sciences Citation Index
Työ täydentää päättyi alussa 2016 vuotta: se on viimeisin
The wrenching of large numbers of people from the older and protective contexts of village , guild, parish , and family , and their massing in the new centres of industry, forming slums, living in common squalor and wretchedness, their wages generally behind cost of living , their families growing larger, their standard of living becoming lower, as it seemed—all of this is a frequent theme in the social thought of the century.Such writers as Sir Henry Maine in England, Numa Fustel de Coulanges in France, and Otto von Gierke in Germany declared that state and sovereignty were not timeless and universal nor the results of some social contract” envisaged by such philosophers as Locke and Rousseau but, rather, structures formed slowly through developmental or historical processes.It was Auguste Comte who coined the word sociology, and he used it to refer to what he imagined would be a single, all-encompassing, science of society that would take its place at the top of the hierarchy of sciences—a hierarchy that Comte saw as including astronomy (the oldest of the sciences historically) at the bottom and with physics, chemistry, and biology rising in that order to sociology, the latest and grandest of the sciences.Alexis de Tocqueville , especially in the second volume of his Democracy in America (1835), provided an account of the customs, social structures, and institutions in America, dealing with these—and also with the social and psychological problems of Americans in that day—as aspects of the impact of the democratic and industrial revolutions upon traditional society.Ferdinand Tönnies , in his Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887; translated as Community and Society ), sought to explain all major social problems in the West as the consequence of the West`s historical transition from the communal, status-based, concentric society of the Middle Ages to the more individualistic, impersonal, and large-scale society of the democratic-industrial period.
Although the point of departure in each of the studies was the nature of association, they dealt, in one degree or other, with the internal processes of psychosocial interaction, the operation of attitudes and judgments, and the social basis of personality and thought—in short, with those phenomena that would, at least in the 20th century, be the substance of social psychology as a formal discipline.And both were to exert a great deal of influence on the other social sciences by the beginning of the 20th century: social statistics on sociology and social psychology pre-eminently; social geography on political science, economics, history, and certain areas of anthropology, especially those areas dealing with the dispersion of races and the diffusion of cultural elements.Research themes include the social impacts of the intersectionality of gender, race and class; sexuality and reproductive ethics; food politics and alternative approaches to economics; women`s writing and feminism in contemporary art; ecofeminism, ethics and human rights; religion and psychoanalysis; identity and subjectivity in the Arab world; Anglo and Francophone literature; and feminist theory.While faculty and graduate students dedicated to the humanistic and social scientific study of this region are largely located in the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, South Asian Studies faculty have appointments as well in the Duke Global Health Initiative, Fuqua School of Business, Nicholas School of the Environment, and Sanford School of Public Policy.The Institute emphasizes: creating new knowledge relevant to contemporary social problems; facilitating access and creating data sources relevant to understanding these social problems; enhancing the skills of researchers, strengthening research teams, and training the next generation of social science researchers; and translating new research findings so that they can influence contemporary understanding of social problems influencing policy debates and solutions.